Corrosion, Deposition, and Biological control are essential to all cooling tower water treatment, evaporative condensers, coolers, air washers, air conditioning, and refrigeration systems. These structures are all designed to reject heat by evaporation and by direct or indirect contact with another process fluid like cooling water.
Heat transfer depends upon clean corrosion and deposition free surfaces along with clean and biologically free cooling water. The objective of cooling water treatment chemicals is to prevent these problems from occurring thus maximizing cooling efficiency minimizing costs and a customer’s ecological footprint.
Chemical and physical treatment methods to prevent general, galvanic, pitting, crevice, and other forms of corrosion that occur when metals and a corrosive medium are together. Understanding the form of corrosion is essential to providing the right type of chemical treatment to prevent it. Typically there are several forms of corrosion taking place at once requiring complex treatment programs to prevent corrosion.
chemical treatment of inorganic compounds precipitated from solution on heat transfer surfaces. These scales lead to a loss of heat transfer in heat exchanger equipment preventing proper operation. The loss in heat transfer efficiency can lead to higher fuel costs and in extreme cases shutdowns.
Suspended material (insoluble matter) found in cooling water systems can be referred to as deposits. Silt, clay, chip scale, insoluble metals are examples of deposits. Once in the system they will remain unless physically or chemically treated. Typically systems are just blown down to eliminate the deposit material. It is essentially to chemically “suspend” these materials in order to do so efficiently. If not these deposits can build up and plug heat exchangers or other equipment leading to shut downs.
Living matter such as algae, fungi, and bacteria need to be controlled in cooling systems. Biofouling of cooling systems inhibits heat transfer and can lead to general corrosion. Using a biocide such a chlorine or bromine is an effective means of control. In some cases non-oxidizing biocides such as quaternary amines or other will also be needed to help control biological growth.